VEDIC ASTROLOGICAL CHART FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
JULY 4, 1776, 18:30 E.S.T. (James Kelleher Time Rectification),
PHILADELPHIA, PA Lahiri Ayanamsha: 20o 43’57”
There’s a tried and true saying: “history tends to repeat itself.” With that in mind, consider the Vimshottari mahadasa cycle of a given country. In the case of a country in existence over 120 years, the astrologer has the interesting opportunity to review the historical events that occurred during any previous mahadasha period. This historical research provides an empirical basis for understanding the type of events likely to manifest under a similar mahadasha.
In contrast, when analyzing an individual’s birth chart, employing Vimshottari mahadasha, the person will usually not live to experience all 120 years of the complete planetary cycle series. So, the only historical avenues available for studying individual’s charts relate to the previous sub-period bhuktis or pratyantaras (3rd level).
The United States of America (U.S.) is in transition as of this writing (June 2008). The U.S. is ending the ten year Moon mahadasha and preparing to enter the next major cycle, that of Mars, which lasts for seven years. For the U.S., Mars mahadasha begins on 9/30/2008 and ends on 9/30/2015, when employing J. Kelleher’s U.S. birth time rectification. As with all mahadasha periods, there are also nine sub-periods, or bhuktis that run proportionately within the seven year span allotted for the Mars cycle. These sub-periods modify the results of Mars and allow for specific predictions during those shorter time frames, across the seven years.
Just as every individual has an astrological chart dictated by the actual birth date, birth time and birth place, so too does each country of the world. Determining the actual time that the country “took birth” is a daunting task and must be rectified using factual historical events. Several years ago, James Kelleher (personal communication) took on the task of researching historical events, which correlate precisely with the timing of the planetary cycles that the U.S. has followed. His thorough chart rectification correlates very closely with these historical events and the natal chart itself fits the life and times of the U.S. quite well. For this reason, I use the same chart when making predictions and for evaluating the general climate/trends within the U.S.
The following essay assesses the condition of Mars in the U.S. chart, outlines the historical events that occurred during the last U.S. Mars mahadasha, and finally offers several predictions for events likely to manifest during the next seven years under Mars mahadasha.
MARS ASSESSMENT IN THE U.S.A. ASTROLOGICAL CHART:
First and foremost, it is critical to understand the nature of Mars. Mars is the commander of the planetary cabinet. The significations of Mars include: ambition, motivation, energy, aggression, swift/decisive action, wars, military, debates, competition, challenges, arguments, protests, independence, courage, physical strength, sports, surgery, blood (red blood cells, hemoglobin), muscles, cutting, sharp instruments, mechanical equipment, engineering, biotechnology, land, property, fire, heat, explosions, volcanoes, earthquakes, chemicals, toxins, pharmaceutical agents, metals (gold & copper), and rules over hot places and the south direction.
At its highest, octave, Mars is the planet that gets things done, achieves goals, is fearless, courageous, fights for justice and the higher good, is strong, precise, innovative and accomplished. When functioning at its lower level, Mars is hasty, overly aggressive, impatient, foolish, lacking a long-term perspective, and is overly selfish.
These different manifestations of Mars are amply described by Gary Gomes (1999), where the spiritual side of Mars is explored. The Hindu incarnations of Mars are clearly explained through understanding Skanda (Shiva’s younger son), Narasimha and Hanuman (featured in the classic Indian text, the Ramayana). Gomes describes the higher expression of Mars in terms of destroying (inner and outer) demons, ignorance and injustices. He further makes the interesting point that Mars’ manifestation as a “spiritual” planet occurs when Mars functions intelligently, with determination and dedication, but also with complete detachment.
At this level, Mars offers self-control, perseverance and pointed directness to accomplish anything. Sometimes destruction is necessary to get rid of a “tumor” that may eventually kill its host. In this sense, Mars functions with a specific purpose, completely detached from the opinions (good/bad), judgments and desires of others.
The big question is whether the U.S. will respond to Mars mahadasa by slaying demons and cleaning things up, or will the U.S. act out of impulse and frustration?
Simply stated, during Mars mahadasha, the significations listed above will be magnified and thrive (for better or worse) in the U.S. However, there are specific modifications that must be considered based on the condition of Mars in the U.S. chart, as follows:
(1) MARS RESIDES IN GEMINI AT ZERO DEGREES 40 MINUTES.
Any planet at zero degrees in a chart is rendered weak. In this situation, Mars at zero degrees is in an unfriendly sign where it is not particularly strengthened. Planets within the 0-2 degree range generally do not have the strength to exert great power and influence. Early degree planets require a boost to get them moving, and support from other planets to be effective. However, this Mars receives strength from Jupiter and Venus, so it is not completely void of support. Mars is also a functional benefic from Sagittarius lagna, so it is a planet that can potentially allow for gains and advancement to some degree. However, from the vantage point of Chandra lagna, Surya lagna & Arudha lagna, Mars has a malefic influence.
In Gemini, Mars is posited in a “dual” air sign, which is known for discussion, communication, indecisiveness, inconsistency and analysis rather than action. This is completely antithetical to Mars’ basic nature, which is one of ambition, aggressiveness and taking quick, decisive action. Gemini is symbolized by “entwined” lovers and Mars in both the 7th house (relationships) and in Gemini (twins) alludes to “entwinement” with other countries (partners) during the mahadasha of Mars.
The constellation Gemini is also associated with information processing, telecommunications, writing, education, mathematics, astrology, computer software and air travel. Mars will fuel these areas.
(2) MARS RECEIVES THE ASPECT OF SATURN & MARS RESIDES IN THE SIGN RULED BY MERCURY (DISPOSITOR).
Other significant afflictions to this Mars include the distant aspect it receives from Saturn and its dispositorship by a weak, afflicted Mercury. In this case, Mercury (rules Gemini) is in the 8th house afflicted by Rahu and in a Papa kartari yoga. These factors weaken Mercury a great deal, which therefore weakens Mars.
(3) MARS IS LOCATED IN THE 7TH HOUSE. MARS IS CONJUNCT WITH VENUS, JUPITER AND THE SUN, RESPECTIVELY. MARS FORMS A RAJA YOGA WITH JUPITER. MARS IS IN VARGOTTAMAMSA IN SEVERAL VARGA CHARTS.
Mars placement in the 7th house puts a strong emphasis on relationships during the mahadasa. In the case of a “country’s chart,” the country’s association with other countries (partnerships) is indicated by the 7th house. Weak Mars in the 7th house also indicates the type of “partner” the U.S. is likely to attract (one that is undependable, aggressive, self-serving, and unreliable.) The fact that 7th house Mars is in Mrigashira nakshatra emphasizes that U.S. partnerships will very likely be based on “searching” for commodities related to food and energy (See more about Mrigahsira below). It’s worthy to note that Mars is in vargottamamsa (also in Gemini in the Dasamsa 5th house and in several other varga charts discussed later), which confers some strength in those areas defined by the individual varga charts.
On the positive side, Mars forms a Raja yoga with Jupiter. Mars is supported and strengthened by associating with Jupiter and Venus. Mars forms Dhana yogas (wealth-producing) with Venus (11th ruler) and with the Sun (9th ruler). These yogas involving Jupiter promote growth in real estate and property during Mars/Jupiter. Short-term financial improvements are more likely to occur in Mars/Jupiter, Mars/Venus and Mars/Sun periods, respectively.
(4) WHILE MARS IS A NATURAL MALEFIC PLANET, IT ALSO RETAINS FUNCTIONAL BENEFIC STATUS AS RULER OF THE TRINAL 5TH HOUSE. MARS IS IN THE 5TH HOUSE FROM THE MOON, 1ST HOUSE FROM THE SUN & IN THE 10TH HOUSE FROM ARUDHA LAGNA (VIRGO).
Since Mars serves as a functional benefic planet for Sagittarius lagna, Mars will confer “some” benefits during its cycle. Mars resides in kendra and trikona houses from the vantage points of the Ascendant, Moon, Sun and Arudha Lagnas. This confers strength and indicates Mars’ ability to gain some level of achievement, gains and success during its seven year cycle (according to the interests, terms and strength of Mars).
(5) MARS RESIDES IN MRIGASHIRA NAKSHATRA, IN THE 1ST DREKKANA OF GEMINI.
It’s interesting to examine the deeper significance of the nakshatra and drekkana in which a planet is placed. Mars is in the nakshatra of Mrigashira, symbolized by a “deer’s head.” Deer constantly search for food and they are agile, fast-moving animals, easily frightened, tend to have a sweet disposition and they have a defined hierarchy amongst themselves. Note that their favorite food is corn and corn has recently turned into a huge commodity due to its use in ethanol production. The demand for corn is currently outstripping the supply due to weather-related difficulties, and the price for corn has risen upwards of 300% in one year! This trend will continue well into Mars mahadasa.
Mrigashira is also associated with the following qualities/domains: learning, curiosity, inquisitiveness, impulsiveness, the desire for fulfillment, to weave or create clothing (new ideas), to gain lordship over the plants (agriculture), to assist animals, to travel, roads, transportation, vehicles, and healing/medicine (Kelleher, James, 2006).
The diety associated with Mrigashira is “Soma” (Chandra or the Moon). Soma is considered to be an advanced sage who confers gains, wealth, healing (medical cures), food, knowledge and fulfillment.
Mrigashira energy prompts searching for fulfillment and meeting desires. If the desires are healthy, then the results will be beneficial. However, if the desires are harmful then negative consequences result.
The first drekkana of Gemini (ayudha “weapons” drekkana) depicts a woman with her hands raised, who is beautiful, past puberty, lustful, does not have any children and who loves needlework. She has adorned her body with ornaments (Varahamihira (translation, 1977) (Kelleher, James, 2006).
The emphasis on women’s advancement, dissatisfaction/protests, independence, sharp instruments, weaving new concepts and ideas together, creativity and innovation are indicated by Mars posited in this drekkana. When combined with other elements of the U.S. chart, these significations will manifest during certain Mars sub-periods.
SUMMARY OF MARS CONDITION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE U.S.A.:
Synthesis of the above factors, reveal that Mars has several sides of expression. On one hand, Mars is rendered weak, while on the other hand, Mars has the support from its association with beneficial planets and strengthening yogas. Therefore, we can anticipate mixed results, with setbacks and gains throughout the seven years.
Innovative ideas and inventions will be “seeded” in the areas of: transportation (highways), vehicles, biotechnology (stem-cell), pharmaceutical agents, medical instrumentation (lasers, cyberknife), new synthetic blood products, blood-based diagnostic tests, fabrics/textiles, “organic” building materials, agriculture methods, communications, defense/military/security, and new sources for energy will be widely sought throughout the next seven years.
However, several of these novel ideas and inventions may not be viable until the following mahadasha of Rahu, mainly due to the weak condition of Mars. Research and development will flourish during the next seven years in the U.S., especially in the domains mentioned above.
Problems with other countries will simmer due to difficult partnerships created over the next seven years. However, the likelihood of getting into a new war is slim because Mars is rendered weak in this chart. The U.S. is more likely to retreat from war, due to significant economic and domestic problems. Yet, the military is likely to grow and defense programs are likely to expand. Women will likely take on more prominent roles in several spheres, and are likely to become more influential. Inflation is likely to increase due to commodity, food and energy expenditures. There will be a major economic downturn (with some intermittent bright spots) and problems with banks, bad loans, real estate and property will continue for several years to come.
HISTORICAL CORRELATION OF EVENTS DURING MARS MAHADASA
The correlation of historical events from the last Mars cycle provides insight into what might be anticipated over the next seven years. The events listed below parallel the situation already brewing in the U.S. in 2008. The major themes place a strong focus on: agriculture, environment, farming, import/export, inflation, taxes, currency issues, gold/silver, economic and real estate problems, land expansion, growing anger/impatience with the government, labor issues, immigration issues, inventions and women’s rights. It’s interesting to note that the U.S. did not engage in war during the last Mars mahadasa.
The last Mars cycle commenced 120 years ago, and ran from Sept. 1888 – Sept. 1895 (7 years total). Examination of major events during that period follows:
VIMSHOTTARI MAHADASHA SUB-PERIODS OF MARS (7 YEARS):
MARS/MARS 09/30/2008 - 02/26/2009
MARS/RAHU 02/26/2009 - 03/17/2010
MARS/JUPITER 03/17/2010 - 02/21/2011
MARS/SATURN 02/21/2011 - 03/31/2012
MARS/MERCURY 03/31/2012 - 03/29/2013
MARS/KETU 03/29/2013 - 08/25/2013
MARS/VENUS 08/25/2013 - 10/25/2014
MARS/SUN 10/25/2014 - 03/02/2015
MARS/MOON 03/02/2015 - 10/01/2015
PREDICTIONS FOR THE U.S.A. UNDER MARS MAHADASA
Consideration of Mars’ innate condition in the U.S. chart, historical events during the last mahadasa of Mars and assessment of the sub-period planets allow for specific predictions for the U.S. between 9-30-08 and 9-30-2015. Astrological commentary and basis for each prediction follows:
(1) Economics: Overall, there will be significant problems with the U.S. economy, except during the Mars/Jupiter period (3/17/2010 – 02/21/2011), and Mars/Sun (10/25/2014 – 3/2/2015). The problems stem from inflationary pressures related to commodities (food), housing and energy costs. There is likely to be an overhaul of the tax code and possibly a completely new federal tax system put into place. Inflationary pressures increase until Mars/Ketu (3/29/2013 – 8/25/2013), when a major stock market crash and economic downturn are indicated. This correlates with the previous Panic of 1893. Banks will come under increased scrutiny and have serious problems (from bad loans), leading to the downturn. Farmers and commodity-based (oil) companies are likely to lose subsidies. More housing and business foreclosures are expected in that phase. Mars/Saturn (2/21/2011-3/29/2013) is also a problematic time for the U.S.
Mars will yield some financial strength for the U.S. in Jupiter bhukti due to the Raja yoga and Dhana yogas that are formed in the Rasi from both the lagna and Chandra lagna. Jupiter is conjunct Mars and aspects the Moon, conferring strength. In the Hora* (finance) varga, notice that Jupiter is in the 2nd house from the lagna and Mars. Jupiter forms a Dhana yoga in the 2nd house. From the Moon in the Hora varga, Jupiter is in the 10th house with the 9th ruler, the Sun, forming a Raja yoga. Jupiter in Uttara Phalguni in the Hora is a wealth-inducing nakshatra. Jupiter is very strong in the Charturtamsa (property) varga, forming Hamsa yoga in the 10th house aspecting Mars in the 4th house (critical house for this varga), creating a Dhana yoga. Saturn holds back Jupiter in all vargas described, so “enormous gains” are not expected.
During Mars/Saturn, both are natural malefic planets and Saturn aspects Mars (as well as Jupiter, Venus and the Sun). Mars and Saturn are in a 6/8 relationship in the Hora which is detrimental for finances. Saturn is in the 8th house and Mars aspects Saturn. Saturn also aspects the Moon in the Hora, which is troublesome and indicates significant worries about money in the U.S. The U.S. could have more debts and expenses during this period, presumably due to energy, defense and security spending. Cutbacks will be prominent and widespread.
Under Mars/Ketu, it is the nature of Ketu to create loss and to force the entity to detach. Ketu is in the 2nd house of the Rasi (finance) and is in a 6/8 relationship with Mars. Ketu is disposited by Saturn, which harms Mars. In the Hora, Ketu is in the first drekkana of Scorpio of the 4th house, which depicts a woman with serpents coiled around her feet and she is displaced from her home. This sarpa drekkana evokes the image of loss of control and support, as well as worries about meeting basic shelter and security needs. The 4th house placement of Ketu in the Hora underscores that the financial loss is derived from the housing sector.
Improvement during Mars/Sun can be seen in the Rasi as the Sun (fortunate 9th lord) forms both Raja yoga and Dhana yoga with Mars. Jupiter is conjunct both planets in the 7th house. The Sun in Punarvasu nakshatra evokes wealth. In the Navamsa, the Sun is exalted in Aries (the sign ruled by Mars), in the fortunate 11th house of gains and success, while aspecting Mars itself. Gains may come through trade with several countries, as revealed through the Navamsa.
In the Hora, the Sun is in the critical 2nd house of the finance varga, second from Mars and the lagna. The Sun rules the 1st house forming a Dhana yoga in the 2nd house, conjunct benefic Jupiter. The Sun is in the second drekkana of Virgo, which depicts a dark man with a bow in one hand and a pen in the other, counting profits and expenditure. This drekkana is a wealth-inducing, weapons drekkana which suggests gains (& expenditures) coming from defense, security, and through pharmaceutical/biotechnological agents. This Sun sub-period may be a boon for research and development.
(2) Import/Export: Industries involved with import/export will grow and thrive under Mars mahadasa. Companies with international ties will perform much better than those that are dependent on the U.S. alone. Agriculture, all types of energy (especially wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear and natural gas), aeronautics, military/defense, transportation, biomedical diagnostics and biotechnology will become larger industries and perform well.
*Hora varga is calculated using Parivritti Dwaya method.
Trade agreements with other countries will be crucial for the next administration. Companies that are competitive, multidimensional, lean and mean will perform best. The soft, meek and mild companies will be run over. The periods of Mars/Rahu (2/26/2009 – 3/17/2010) and Mars/Mercury (3/31/2012 – 3/29/2013) will be strong for U.S. companies to expand overseas.
During Mars/Rahu, the nature of Rahu is to magnify the energy of Mars and create strong, compulsive desires and behaviors. Rahu is in the 8th house in the Rasi, 2nd from Mars which denotes money coming from the partner. In this case, the partner is a foreigner, also indicated by Rahu. Rahu is with the 7th ruler, Mercury and Mars is in the sign of Mercury in the 7th house. Thus, intensive foreign investment, business partnerships and expansion out of the U.S. are indicated. Rahu’s conjunction with Mercury will fuel the interest in business. In the Dasmasa, Rahu is in the 7th house, disposited by the Sun which resides in the 12th house, reemphasizing business partnerships with foreigners.
Since both Mercury and Rahu reside in Pushya nakshatra, which refers to “nourishment,” in combination with Mars in Mrigashira, agricultural expansion is promoted during these sub-periods.
Mercury is in the 8th house (2nd from the 7th), denoting the partner’s income. Mercury is the planet of commerce, business, communication, and import/export. In the Dasamsa, Mercury is in the 4th house in Aswini nakshatra which indicates traveling for business. The Aswini Kumars were known as the twin physicians to the gods who possessed effective cures and healing ability. They traveled to dispense their medical acumen. During Mars/Mercury, the U.S. may export innovative pharmaceutical agents, biotechnology and diagnostic tests. Mars in Ardra in the Dasamsa 5th house underscores the development of sharp surgical instruments, toxins and pharmaceutical agents.
Mars/Venus promises some improvement in the financial situation in the U.S., but also the dissolving of a partnership with another country. Note that Venus forms a Dhana yoga with Mars, promoting prosperity. Venus is conjunct Mars in the 1st house of the Hora, suggesting a prominent financial event will take place during Venus’ bhukti. Venus is in Uttara phalguni in the Hora, a wealth-producing nakshatra. However, in the Navamsa, Venus is in the 8th house, aspected by Mars, suggesting a change or separation from a partnership. Venus in Ardra nakshatra of the Rasi chart suggests that Mars/Venus will be period of upheaval, dissatisfaction and change in the country.
(3) Property/Real Estate: During Mars/Jupiter and Mars/Saturn, The U.S. is likely to try to increase its territorial jurisdiction. Since there are no land masses to annex as new states, this time around, the U.S. is likely to go after land and sea rights to search for minerals, metals, oil and natural gas. Drilling off the Gulf of Mexico, and other southern locations are highly probable under Mars (rules the south). The period of Mars/Jupiter will see improvement and expansion in real estate throughout the country.
In addition to comments mentioned under (1) above, Saturn is in the 4th house from Mars in the Rasi and aspects the 4th house from the 10th. In the Charturtamsa Mars is in the 4th house. Since both Mars and Saturn are malefics, the land obtained may be forcefully taken (witness the Indian land grab in 1890-91). During Mars/Jupiter, land expansion and real estate growth are indicated for the reasons indicated in (1) above. Also, Mars is the karkaka for property/land, and Mars is in Mrigashira nakshatra (seeking) land (4th house placement). During this period, the desire is to attain additional energy resources, so the land sought will be for this purpose. Saturn rules oil and petroleum products, so under Mars/Saturn expect expansion of drilling and exploration for natural gas and oil.
(4) Protests, uprisings, strikes, and demonstrations will proliferate. The public will become more vocal about their desires for higher wages, labor issues, loss of jobs to overseas markets, inflation (cost-of-living), immigration policy, environmental issues related to energy, pollution, global warming, and human rights. Mars/Ketu and Mars/Saturn are prominent periods for these situations.
Mars is naturally the planet of protests, debates and arguments. Mars in Mrigashira desires to help animals, plants and the environment. But, Mars is weak at zero degrees (and afflicted by Saturn), and won’t have the power to overcome strong economic forces. The first drekkana of Gemini depicts a woman with her hands raised (protesting). Ketu is a planet of dissatisfaction with the status quo, and promotes demonstrations and protests. Together, they are a formidable pair. Ketu is in Shravana nakshatra which refers to taking steps required to “get the demons out of heaven and put back in their rightful place” (intention of protestors).
Recall, in the Hora varga, Ketu is in the first sarpa drekkana of Scorpio, which depicts a woman separated from her home with serpents coiled around her feet (feeling powerless). This refers to immigrants who feel displaced. So, the protests are likely to be over economic problems (job loss/wages) which are likely to be linked to illegal immigration (scapegoat for this issue). Ketu in the Rasi chart is in the 2nd house (money) and is 8th from Mars. Similarly, a backlash against immigrants occurred in 1891 (Mars/Saturn).
(5) Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wild fires, drought and airborne accidents are more likely throughout Mars mahadasha. Extreme high temperatures and global warming accelerates. Flooding, hurricanes, and windstorms will occur when transiting Mars is debilitated.
Mars is the karaka for such eruptions, heat, fires and high temperatures. Mars in an air sign promotes airborne accidents if afflicted. Mars receives the aspect of Saturn. Mars/Rahu, Mars/Saturn, Mars/Ketu and Mars/Venus are the most likely periods for these weather-related effects to be ubiquitous. Flooding may accelerate when transiting Mars is in its debilitated sign of Cancer (water sign) (from Oct. 2009 - May 2010; Sept.- Oct 2011, and Aug.- Sept. 2013). These periods will likely bring strong storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes in vulnerable locations. Note during Mars/Venus (8/2013 – 10/2014) Venus is in Ardra, a nakshatra symbolized by the teardrop, and is associated with hurricanes, thunderstorms, and flooding. Rudra (god of storms) is the diety ruling Ardra.
(6) Introduction of innovative automobiles, energy-efficient vehicles, and consolidation of automobile and airline companies continues. Blueprints will abound, but functional vehicles with radically new technologies won’t be widely available until the end of Mars mahadasha and into Rahu.
(7) Expansion of biotechnology, diagnostics, surgical techniques, medical devices and pharmaceutical agents. New synthetic blood products are produced. Resurgence in stem-cell technology. Expansion of plant-derivatives (herbs) for medicine and health. Expect the introduction of new medical instruments and applications for them (cyberknife, laser, high temperature technology).
(8) Strong emphasis on national park renewal, forests, trees, animal protections and agriculture. The use of “green” organic building materials will expand in construction. Separately, health insurance and health care administration will be a major priority (Mars/Saturn).
Saturn will transit through Virgo between Sept. 2009 - Nov. 2011. During that time, Mars/Rahu, Mars/Jupiter and Mars/Saturn periods will be in force. This combination will force change and improvements in environmental policies and in health care, including health insurance. Virgo rules health care, hygiene and environmental concerns. Mars/Saturn period is particularly prominent for concrete changes in health care and the implementation of a new insurance program.
(9) Legislation to combat internet piracy will come into law during Mars/Mercury.
(10) The U.S. will retreat from war. However, the threat of terrorism continues. This threat will fuel the interest and growth of defense and military technologies. There will be plenty of internal “wars” within the U.S. Alliances with other countries will increase to fight terrorism.
While Mars is the planet that rules war, Mars at zero degrees of Gemini, afflicted by Saturn does not promote courage and war. There were no wars during the past Mars mahadasa.
The examination of historical events during the previous Mars mahadasa, can be quite revealing and useful for assisting with prediction. While 2008 is not the same as 1888, planetary energies (and for that matter, human nature), have not changed very much. Technology and modern conveniences have advanced enormously since that time, however. Perhaps, the U.S. will rise to the challenge of this next Mars mahadasa and perform more like Hanuman, fighting for justice, using intelligent action coupled with willpower and discipline to dissolve ignorance?
Mars at its higher expression confers motivation, courage, conviction, and the desire to achieve excellence. Mars is the power behind the thrown that gets ideas put into motion. Mars is naturally independent and does not negotiate. Productivity and swift action are primary. However, it will be important to direct the Mars energy properly, with intelligence, to make lasting improvements. Mars can express itself at higher or lower octaves, depending on the quality of human energy behind it.
During any mahadasa transition, it is important to observe the empirical events that take place at that time. Events during September and early October 2008 will be quite revealing and provide clues as to just how the next seven years will unravel in the U.S.! Monitor this time frame closely.